FLOUR - is the basic ingredient in most baked products. Flour provides the structure or shape for the baked goodies. Different types of flour are used for baking, but the most commonly used is the all-purpose flour since it can be used for all kinds of baked goods. For cakes, its best to used cake flour because of its low protein content while for bread flour is most suitable for breads due to high protein content.
SUGAR - does not only function as a sweetener. It is also responsible for making the cake tender because it hinders in the hydration of flour, which is necessary in the development of glut. Sugars also provide the golden brown color of the baked goods. Most used is the refined white sugar or granulated sugar but there are some recipes call for brown sugar and even confectioners or powdered sugar.
FAT – makes the baked goodies tender, moist and rich. Butter or margarine is usually preferred because of baked flavor and for additional color. Shortening is also often used while other specifies oil. Butter can either be melted or creamed depending on what re recipes calls for.
LEAVING AGENTS – such us baking soda, baking powder and yeast. These produce carbon dioxide which is largely responsible for the rising of the cake or its volume. They also make cake light and porous. Baking soda, and baking powder are used for cakes and pastries while yeast is used for breads.
LIQUID – is also used to hold the batter or dough together and to blend all the ingredients. It can be in the form of water, milk or juices.
EGGS – is also used for additional structure, richness and nutrition. Important thing is use eggs of the same size.
FLOVIRINGS – can be nuts, dried or fresh fruits, flavorings, spices can be added to make the baked goods more flavorful and interesting.